Who Developed the First Comprehensive Theory of Personality?
The first complete theory of personality was put out by Sigmund Freud. Additionally, he was the first to realize how much of our mental life occurs unconsciously. The id, ego, and superego were the other three parts of our identity that Freud hypothesized.
Sigmund Freud was one of the most influential psychologists of all time. His work influenced psychoanalysis techniques and is regarded as the father of psychoanalytic theory. His personality theory is considered one of the first comprehensive theories of human behavior. The concept of personality is quite complicated, but one of the best ways to understand it is to look at the lives of real people. Freud was also the first to describe the various aspects of human personality.
Psychoanalysis is a form of psychology that explores the development of psychosexuality in humans. Despite strong criticisms, the theories derived from Freud’s work are still widely used. For instance, Beystehner argues that Freud’s research was not scientific. However, the theory has remained popular for over a century and has influenced many other theories.
While working as a psychiatrist in Paris, Freud partnered with physician Josef Breuer, and together they began a clinical neuropsychology practice. This partnership continued for 50 years. For example, the two partners treated a woman who was suffering from a variety of hysterical symptoms. They allowed her to enter a state of autohypnosis, during which she talked about her symptoms.
Since the early days of human psychology, personality has been studied. Studies of the phenomenon began as early as Hippocrates. The psychodynamic perspective states that childhood experiences form a person’s personality. In response to this theory, other viewpoints have emerged, including the learning, biological, and cultural perspectives. These theories differ in their approaches to personality, but all of them share the same basic assumptions.
Despite the controversial nature of Freud’s work, there is little doubt that the unconscious mind largely governs our behavior. As a result, psychoanalysis aims to bring the unconscious to consciousness. Unlike most other psychotherapeutic techniques, Freud believed that dreams are merely the disguised fulfillment of repressed wishes. In addition to dreams, Freud believed that the unconscious mind is responsible for a person’s behavior.
A person’s identity can be split into three parts: the ego and the id. The id is the unconscious aspect of personality responsible for instinctual and impulsive behavior. The ego, the only part of the personality, controls the id’s basic instincts and functions in the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious mind. In addition, the ego is a rational component of the mind, which makes choices based on cost-benefit analysis.
Philippe Pinel is credited with developing the first comprehensive theory of personality. During his lifetime, Pinel wrote dozens of articles on psychiatry and helped establish psychiatry as a separate branch of medicine. His writings, starting in 1784, were summarized in “Recherches et observations sur le traitement moral des alienes” (1799) and “Traite medico-philosophique de l’ alienation mental” (1801).
Born in 1745, Pinel studied philosophy and literature and became a surgeon. His mother was a physician, and her family had a long tradition of physicians. Despite his academic background, Pinel was initially primarily a literary person and influenced by the Encyclopedists. After finishing his education at the University of Toulouse, he became a specialist in mental diseases and married Jeanne Vincent. The couple had three sons.
In 1784, Pinel became editor of the Gazette de sante and wrote articles on hygiene and mental disorders. After a friend suffered from an illness, he became interested in mental disorders. He also translated several books on medicine and philosophy, including William Cullen’s First Lines of Practice of Physic, three volumes of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, and published a new edition of Baglivi’s opera Omnia.
After defining the four classes of illnesses, Pinel further categorized them by their location and structure. His third class, for example, classified hemorrhage as a mucous membrane disease. His fourth class, neuroses, included psychiatric illnesses, diseases of the senses, and dysfunctions of the genital organs. The fifth class, meanwhile, consisted of diseases with a lymphatic seat. Among these were heart disease, dropsy, and kidney stones.
Sigmund Freud is considered one of the fathers of the theory of personality. He began his career as an opthalmologist but eventually changed his major to general practice. His office was in a lower-class neighborhood of Vienna, across from an amusement park. He often treated circus people as his patients and studied them. As a result, he developed the first comprehensive theory of personality.
After graduating from Harvard University in 1936, Erikson joined the Institute of Human Relations at Yale University to study culture’s influences on children’s development. While there, he also studied the Yurok Indians in northern California and the Sioux Indians on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. The results of his studies led to a theory that all societies similarly develop institutions.
This theory is relevant in everyday life. It helps us understand aging and how we can improve our coping skills. In nursing, for example, understanding the stages of emotional development may help nurses better understand the emotional needs of an elderly patient, whose outward appearance might suggest a deep sense of despair. By identifying the patient’s state of mind, the nurse can respond to her patient with empathy and care.
Erikson studied child psychoanalysis and the Montessori Method based on observation. In 1930, he published his first paper on the topic. Later, he was elected to the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute. In 1933, Erikson moved to the United States, where he began practicing child psychoanalysis. In addition, he joined the faculty of Harvard Medical School, where he studied the development of the creative ego of insane individuals.
Despite his reputation as a pioneer in the field, Erik Erikson has been criticized for his controversial methods. Although he has remained controversial, his work has influenced many aspects of life. His work has paved the way for numerous psychological interventions still used today. He is also credited with introducing the concept of an identity crisis. As a result, Erik was one of the most quoted psychologists of the 20th century. The most critical aspect of Erik Erikson’s work is that he created the concept of the identity crisis and a model of psychosocial development.
In addition to developing a model of psychological development, Erikson also expanded on Freud’s five stages of development. According to Erikson, a person’s personality development is a process of crisis and self-awareness. In his theory, people grow through a series of crises. During this time, they also develop their social and emotional awareness. During this time, Erikson argued that the stages of childhood influence personality development.
Psychologist and philosopher Gerard Heymans developed the first comprehensive personality theory in the early 20th century. Based on a system of personality types, the theory describes the three dimensions of personality: activity level, emotionality, and primary versus secondary functioning. These three dimensions are represented on the Heymans cube, which he used to create eight personality types. Heymans’ terminology has clear origins in Greek medicine, and his theory serves as a bridge between old schools and modern experimental psychology.
The early 20th century was marked by the emergence of elaborate personality systems with distinct types and dimensions. As a result, psychiatry began to take an interest in personality disorders. A few decades later, Kraepelin introduced the term psychopathy and defined psychopathy as a narrower and less common kind of abnormal personality. According to this theory, “psychopathic personalities” result from a “psychopathic constitution.” The symptoms persist throughout a patient’s lifetime, and the deviance from normality determines whether they are pathological.”
During the 18th century, psychoanalysis was widespread, and the concept of temperament was born. Galen based his temperaments on the Hippocratic touches of humor, and this concept continued to be influential until the eighteenth century. Then, in the late 18th century, Gerard Heymans and other therapists started to study the relationship between the four types of temperaments and personality.
According to Gerard Heymans’s initial personality theory, there were three primary categories of human behavior: active, extraverted, and sensitive. In addition, the first theory also categorized three types of apathetic people into two types, contemplative and sensitive. Furthermore, each category has various subtypes: emotional, conscientious, and non-conscientious. On the other hand, the apathetic personality was characterized by a lack of emotional reactions.
Later on, the theory of personality was further refined and developed by the sociologist Emil Kraepelin, who proposed the idea of atypical personalities. On the other hand, Kurt Schneider suggested the concept of multiple identities. He believed that a person develops and changes naturally if given the proper support from his social environment. And he also pioneered statistical methods to test personality.